Introduction to biology
Biology basically refer to the study of Life cycle of all the living organisms present in the world including their physical appearances, development in their bodies, chemical and molecules interaction, evolution and environmental collaboration. It is further divided in to subgroups according to what it belongs and kind of study system. Following are the some divisions of biology along with subdivisions.
Botany is the study of plants from the smallest bacteria towards the largest sequoia tree. Fungi, algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants and lichens are in this category too. In present era scientist have considered algae, fungi and bacteria in their own distinct kingdom. A number of botanists are doing experiments to discover how do plants convert simple chemical compounds to more complex chemicals, how plants development is being controlled by genetic information in DNA and processes occurring in a single cell on a time scale ranging onward from fractions of second to those that are unfold over an eternity of evolutionary time. This results in improvement and increase in quantity our medicine, food, plant productions, managing forests, parks, range lands and wilderness areas.
Field of biology dealing with the study on animals. It obsolete all the scientific aspects of animals including their embryonic development, classifications, behavior and evolution. Because of many different ways to study the animals; it is further categorized in to branches depending upon on which animal is being studied. ‘ Aristotle ‘ is called the father of zoology as he did detailed work on animal observation. His studies and observations inspired the scientists for many decades. Another achievement occurred in zoology when Charles Darwin organized the theory of evolution by Natural selection, groups of organisms change over time because of the constant change in environment; no organism perfectly adopt it’s environment. It works against the living organisms. It is not wrong to say’ environment and all the forces acts to stop organisms from reproducing and surviving’. But fortunately to envelop this genetic variability created a slight difference in each individual. It allows organism to exist and creating more genetic variations. Without genetic adaptations, any organism will not as much reproduce which leads them to extinct. That is why natural selection is major factor.
In zoography we studied the geographic ranges of specific animals population, how they effect on ecosystem where they are living and to monitor the distribution of animals species. Ethology, mammalogy, primatology, ornithology, herpetology, ichthyology are further divisions of zoology. Ethology is related to the study of animal behavior and their interaction with the environment, including we humans too. Mammalogy is the study of all vertebrates that has complex nervous system, homoeothermic metabolism and well pumping heart. Primatology is the study which deals with the primates except that of homosapiens. Ornithology deals with the study of birds and all the
consequences related with them. In herpetology we study about creeping animals and all the amphibians around us. Ichnology specifically relates to the study of all kinds of fish i.e cartilaginous, jawless and bony fish.
In this we study about all the microorganisms living on the earth. There are plethora of microorganisms some are unidentified too. They may be unicellular ( organisms having only one cell), multicellular ( organisms having more than one cell) or acellular ( organisms that Lacks cells). A microorganism cannot be seen from the naked eye. Microbiology has numerous subdivisions including the main virology, mycology, bacteriology, protozoology, parasitology and immunology. Girolamo Fracastoro is the trailblazer of microbiology after purposing the theory of contagious disease. Microbiology is beneficial for the production of vaccines and medicine. It is also useful in agricultural to kill pests. Bacteriology is concerned about bacteria as by its name. Mycology is the study of those fungi which are eukaryotic, whether they are beneficial or harmful. Protozoology is referred to the study of protozoa meaning organisms that are single celled and have a nuclei and essential organelles in their cytoplasm and enclosed by the cell membrane.
The branch of biology deals with the study of the structure and relationship between the organisms body parts. In this field the biologist identify the structure of the body. The animal anatomy is called zootomy while plants anatomy is called phytotomy. In gross anatomy we study the major body parts by dissection and observe them without any magnifying object. We use a light microscope during a microscopic anatomy to identify the given structure, cannot be seen by naked eye. In comparative anatomy we correlate the different species of animals having characteristics in common in their bodies. In anatomy the biologist dissect the body of plant, human or animal to see what they have inside their bodies. It is also very valuable for the discovery or to remove the disease. The best example to quote here endoscopy; a long and thin tube ended with a camera, putting by a doctor in the body from mouth or rectum to examine the gastrointestinal path inside. Andreas visalius is known as the father of anatomy. The Fabrica is the most valuable and accurate first written anatomy book.
Branch of biology in which we investigate about the chemical reactions taking place inside the living organisms. In structural biochemistry, the biologist identifies the chemical structures of macromolecules ( DNA, RNA ). Bio-organic chemistry like it’s name deals with the study of organic compounds come from living things. It helps to understand about the structure, chemical reactions and chemical bonding’s of organic compounds. The behavior of enzymes is studied in enzymology. Endocrinology is the area of biochemistry which deals with the hormones and their functions, storage and biosynthesis. In chemotaxonomy, we identify and classify the compounds according to their proved similarities and differences in chemical composition. Biochemist can solve biological problems by emphasizing the biochemical techniques. Biochemistry is very vital in science field; looking what is going inside a cell, how cells interact with each other
The branch of biology in which we learn how physics is applied to the biological processes, how parts of cell works, how circulatory system and nervous system works. From biophysics the scientists discovered the structure of DNA and it’s sequence. Bioacoustics refers to the production of sound and it’s dispersion in all living organisms. Bioelectricity refer to the generation of electricity due to the conversion of chemical energy in to electrical energy. It would also happened in living cell or tissues. Bioenergetics concerned with the study of transformation and relationship of energy in living organisms. The Fringe benefits of biophysics is to decipher the structure of DNA and proteins and number of other elements of biochemistry.
The study of biology in which microorganisms or living organisms are used to improve the production of useful products. Here we highlights the main biotechnology areas using color classification. Red biology basically useful for the production of medicine and veterinary product. Drugs, vaccines, antibiotics, progress in genetic engineering to restore or heal the health using genetic manipulation. White biotechnology is associated with industry. Organizing the products and procedures that consumes less resources but give out more efficient products; polluting less than ones before. Yellow biotechnology utilizes in food production; by fermentation manufacturing of beverages, wine, cheese etc. Grey biotechnology put in touch with the exile of pollutants from biodiversity with the help of microorganisms and plants. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are dispose of by this biotech. Green biotechnology aims at production of new plant variety. In this biotech, genetic modification occurred and an extra gene from other or may be the same specie inserted into the DNA to develop a new variety. In blue biotechnology we takes benefits from aquatic material to produce industrial products. Acetones and paint solvents are produced by fermentation. Biotechnology is also highlighting the medical section by the production of insulin.
Cell biology or cytology involves the study of cell, it’s functions, structure, it’s formation and specialization. Cell is the basic structural unit of life. An organism may be prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells do not consist of membrane bond structure while eukaryotic cells have membrane bound structure and have particular functions. Mitochondria is not present in prokaryotes but in eukaryotes it is.
Branch of biology pertains to the interaction between organisms and with their environment. It also relates with ecosystem, biosphere and population too. Ecology helps to understand how biotic and abiotic components distributed in the environment. Biotic components include all the living things. For example microbes, animals, plants, humans, birds, insects etc. Abiotic components are those which are non-living in an ecosystem. For example soil, sunlight, air and minerals. In landscape ecology topological distribution and patterns in larger geographical regions is studied. Population ecology bear upon the decrease and increase in population of any specie. In behavior ecology the biologist study about the different ways of how organisms adapt characteristics to change in habitat.
Have relation with the study of harmful and beneficial aspects of light in living organisms. Physiology: the branch of biology deals with mechanism of the human body. It might be the functioning of organs, tissues and cells. It focus on how cells, organs and biomolecules Carry out functions in livings.